Class I/II affix

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In phonology and morphology, class I/II affix is a classification of (English) affixes.


The English Class I affixes can cause stress shift (párent-paréntal, prodúctive-productívity), while their class II counterparts are stress neutral (párent-párenthood, prodúctive-prodúctiveness). Furthermore, class I affixes may appear inside class II affixes, but not vice versa (*hopefulity). This generalization is usually referred to as the Affix Ordering Generalization.


Class I and Class II affixes can be distinguished in terms of their different phonological and morphological properties. The distinction between Class I and Class II affixes is equivalent to that between formative-boundary and word-boundary affixes (Chomsky & Halle, 1968), Level I and Level II affixes (Pesetsky 1979, Kiparsky 1982), and Stratum I and Stratum II affixes (Halle & Vergnaud 1987).


Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics


  • Chomsky, Noam A. & Halle, Morris. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Halle, M. & Vergnaud, J.-R. 1987. An Essay on Stress. Cambridge: MIT-Press.
  • Kiparsky, P. 1982. From Cyclic Phonology to Lexical Phonology. In van der Hulst, H. & Smith, N. (eds.) The Structure of Phonological Representations (I), 131-175.
  • Pesetsky, D. 1979. Russian Morphology and Lexical Theory. Ms. MIT.