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movement of a wh-phrase. Wh-movement always moves the moved element to an A-bar position, in particular the specifier position of CP. Languages differ with respect to whether this movement is overt or not; while wh-movement is overt in English (see wh-in-situ) it appears to be covert in Chinese, and may be overt or covert in French.



  • Chomsky, N. 1993. A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory, MIT occasional papers in linguistics, 1-67. Reprinted in: Chomsky (1995).
  • Chomsky, N. 1986b. Barriers, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Chomsky, N. 1977b. On Wh-movement, in: P.W. Culicover, T. Wasw and A. akmajian (eds.) Formal syntax, Academic Press, San Francisco, London.
  • Chomsky, N. 1973. Conditions on transformations, in: S.R. Anderson & P. Kiparsky, A festschrift for Morris Halle, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
  • Huang, James 1982. Move wh in a language without wh-movement, Linguistic review, 369-416
  • Lasnik, H. and M. Saito 1992. Move alpha: conditions on its application and output, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Lasnik, H. and M. Saito 1984. On the nature of proper government, Linguistic Inquiry 15, pp. 235-289
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