In semantics, a predication is a relation between a predicate and a (set of) argument(s). In syntax, it is often used for the relation between a subject and a predicate. This relation is sometimes defined as a coindexing relation between a predicate and a c-commanding subject, not only in the case of an NP-VP relation, but also in cases such as (i) where 'singing' is predicated of 'John'.
(i) Johni left singingi
The relation in (i) is sometimes called 'secondary predication', as opposed to NP-VP predication.
- Williams, E. 1980. Predication, Linguistic Inquiry 11, pp.203-238