Pied piping

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Pied piping is the phenomenon that when a wh-phrase is moved, it can optionally 'drag along' a larger NP or PP in which it is contained.

Example

next to (1a), (1b) and (1c) are also possible.

(i) a  This is the book [NP which] I have designed [NP the covers
       [PP of t]]
    b  This is the book [PP of which] I have designed [NP the covers t]
    c  This is the book [NP the covers of which] I have designed t

In some cases, Pied Piping is obligatory, due to the Left Branch Condition.

Links

Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics

References

  • Ross, J.R. 1967. Constraints on variables in syntax, doctoral dissertation, MIT (published as 'Infinite syntax!' Ablex, Norwood (1986)).
  • Jayaseelan, K. A. 2010. Stacking Stranding and Pied Piping: A proposal about word order, vol 13, issue 4 Syntax[1]