# Negation

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**Negation** refers to the situation in which something is said not to be the case. In propositional logic, it is the logical operation which turns the truth value of a proposition into its opposite. Proposition Neg phi is true if and only if phi is not true:

(i) phi Neg phi 1 0 0 1

The negation operator Neg is a unary connective. In syllogistic logic, negation can be an operator on terms. Thus in *nobody is ill*, the term *nobody* is considered the negation of *somebody*.

### Term properties

Relational adjective: *negative*

### Subtypes

- Direct negation
- Double negation
- External negation
- Indirect negation
- Internal negation
- Sentential negation

### See also

### Links

Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics

### References

- Gamut, L.T.F. 1991.
*Logic, language, and meaning,*Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago. - Givón, Talmy. 1978. Negation in language: Pragmatics, function, ontology. In: Peter Cole (ed.)
*Syntax and Semantics, Volume 9 (Pragmatics).*New York: Academic Press, 69-112. - Horn, Lawrence R. 1989.
*A natural history of negation.*Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

### Other languages

- French négation
- German Negation (de), Verneinung