Disjoint reference

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Disjoint reference occurs if two elements refer to different entities.


in (i)a the reference of she and her is disjoint, and in (i)b that of she and them.

(i) a  She likes her
    b  She likes them

The case of (i)a is captured by the binding theory: since her is a pronominal it must obey condition B which says that she may not locally bind her. It is assumed that she and her must have disjoint reference as a consequence.


Utrecht Lexicon of Linguistics


  • Lasnik, H. 1989. Essays on anaphora, Reidel, Dordrecht
  • Lasnik, H. and J. Uriagereka 1988. A course in GB syntax, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.