Unlike the other two syllabic constituents, the onset and the nucleus, the coda is not universal: some languages (Hua, Cayuvava, Hawaiian (Blevins 1995, Piggott 1999)) do not have a coda at all, that is, all syllables are open, others (Yapese (Piggott 1999)) only have it word finally, yet others (Italian) only word medially, but not word finally.
- Blevins, Juliette. 1995. The syllable in phonological theory. In: John A. Goldsmith (ed.) The Handbook of Phonological Theory, Cambridge, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell. 206–244.
- Piggott, Glyne L. 1999. At the right edge of words. The Linguistic Review 16: 143–185.