Difference between revisions of "Skolt Saami"

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{{InfoboxLanguage
 
{{InfoboxLanguage
 
|Language=Skolt Saami
 
|Language=Skolt Saami
|Autonym=Sääˊmǩiõll
+
|Autonym=Sääˊmǩiõll, Nuõrttsääˊmǩiõll
|WALSname=Not included
+
|WALSname=
 
|Ethn15name=Saami, Skolt
 
|Ethn15name=Saami, Skolt
 
|Countries=Finland, Norway, Russian Federation
 
|Countries=Finland, Norway, Russian Federation
 
|WALSLoc=
 
|WALSLoc=
|Speakers=  
+
|Speakers=300
 
|Family=[[Uralic]]
 
|Family=[[Uralic]]
 
|Genus=[[Mainland Eastern Saamic]]
 
|Genus=[[Mainland Eastern Saamic]]
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}}
 
}}
  
Skolt Saami is one of the five living [[Eastern Saamic]] languages.
+
'''Skolt Saami''' is one of the five living [[Eastern Saamic]] languages.
  
 
===Name===
 
===Name===
The name "skolt" is derived from the Scandinavian "skalle" meaning "scull", however the Skolt Saami people themselves prefer to be referred to as "Eastern Saami" since "Skolt" is perceived to be more negative.  
+
The name ''skolt'', and derived from it [[Finnish]] ''koltta'', is likely borrowed from [[North-Germanic]] ([[Norwegian]]) ''skalle'' (cf. [[Old Norse]] ''skoltr'', [[English]]  ''skull'') and means originally 'bald' (''skallet'' in Norwegian).<ref>Steinar Wikan. 1995. ''Grensebygda Neiden''. Stonglandseidet: Nordkallott-Forlaget ISBN 82-7380-176-4</ref>
  
 
===Location===
 
===Location===
Skolt Saami is spoken on the mainland, as opposed to Kildin and Ter Saami which are peninsular languages. It is spoken primarily in Finland, but there are also small numbers of speakers in Russia and Norway.  Since the Skolt Saami populations are distributed over these three countries and not all Skolt Saami acquire the language, Skolt Saami is considered a minority language which is threatened by extinction.
+
Skolt Saami is spoken in the borderland area between Russia, Norway and Finland.
  
 
===Speakers===
 
===Speakers===
There are estimated to be about 330-340 speakers, with the majority of whom (about 300) living in Finland. There are about 30 Skolt Saami speakers in Russia and just 3 in Norway. Almost all of its speakers are bilingual.
+
There are estimated to be about 300 speakers,<ref>[[Ulla-Maija Kulonen]]. 2005. Skolt Saami language. ''The Saami''. Helsinki: SKS. 396–397 ISBN 951-746-506-8</ref> with the vast majority of whom living in Finland. Only somewhat more than 20 Skolt Saami speakers live in Russia.<ref>Elisabeth Scheller. 2011. The Sámi language situation in Russia. ''Ethnic and linguistic context of identity''. Helsinki: SUS. 79–96 ISBN 978-952-5667-28-8</ref> Although the traditional Skolt Saami dialect of Norway is extinct, the language is again spoken in its original areas there by a few Finnish Skolt Saami domiciled in Norway.<ref>[[Michael Rießler]], own observation</ref>
  
 
===Dialects===
 
===Dialects===
Skolt-Saami can be split up into the following dialects:
+
Skolt-Saami can be split up into the following dialects:<ref>[[Pekka Sammallahti]]. 1998. ''The Saami languages''. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji ISBN 82-7374-398-5</ref>.
 +
 
 +
Northern Skolt Saami
 
*Njauddâm
 
*Njauddâm
 
*Paaččjokk – Peäccam – Mue´tǩǩ
 
*Paaččjokk – Peäccam – Mue´tǩǩ
 +
Southern Skolt Saami
 
*Suõ´nn’jel
 
*Suõ´nn’jel
*Njuõ´ttjäu´rr – Sââ´rvesjäu´rr.
+
*Njuõ´ttjäu´rr – Sââ´rvesjäu´rr
 +
The names of the dialects coincide with the names of the original Skolt Saami villages (or rather settlement areas, in Skolt Saami called ''sijdd''), but note that a few of them are merged into two common dialects.
  
 
===Classification===
 
===Classification===
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===Links===
 
===Links===
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skolt_Sami_language 'Skolt Saami language' in Wikipedia]
 
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skolt_Sami_language 'Skolt Saami language' in Wikipedia]
 +
*[http://www.language-archives.org/language/sms Skolt Saami resources in OLAC]
  
 
+
===Major works on the language===
===Works on the language===
+
*[[Tim Feist]]. 2010. [https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw:123128 A Grammar of Skolt Saami] Ph.D. thesis, University of Manchester.
Tim Feist. 2010. A Grammar of Skolt Saami. Ph.D. thesis, University of Manchester. https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw:123128
+
*[[Toivo Immanuel Itkonen]]. 2011 (1958). ''Wörterbuch des Kolta- und Kolalappischen'' 1–2. Helsiki: SUS ISBN 952-5150-26-7 ISBN 978-952-5667-31-8
 
+
*[[Matti Miestamo]]. 2011. Skolt Saami: a typological profile. ''[[Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne]]'' 93. 111–145. ISSN 1798-2987
 +
 
===References===
 
===References===
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
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===See also===
 
===See also===
 
[[Glottopedia:Survey articles|Survey articles]] on Skolt Saami linguistic structures:
 
[[Glottopedia:Survey articles|Survey articles]] on Skolt Saami linguistic structures:
*[[Skoltsaamische_Phonologie|Skolt Saami phonology (de)]]
+
*[[Phonology]]
*[[Phrasenstruktur im Skoltsaamischen|Phrase structure in Skolt Saami (de)]]
+
**[[Skoltsaamische_Phonologie|Skolt Saami phonology (de)]]
*[[Clause structure in Skolt Saami]]
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*[[Syntax]]
*[[Skolt Saami vocabulary]]
+
**[[Phrasenstruktur im Skoltsaamischen|Phrase structure in Skolt Saami (de)]]
*[[Color terms in Skolt Saami]]
+
**[[Clause structure in Skolt Saami]]
 +
*[[Lexicon]] and [[Semantics]]
 +
**[[Skolt Saami vocabulary]]
 +
**[[Color terms in Skolt Saami]]
  
 
[[Glottopedia:Language_articles|Language articles]] on the other [[Kola Saami]] languages
 
[[Glottopedia:Language_articles|Language articles]] on the other [[Kola Saami]] languages
* [[Akkalasaamisch|Akkalasaamisch (de)]]
+
* [[Akkalasaamisch|Akkala Saami (de)]]
 
* [[Kildin Saami]]
 
* [[Kildin Saami]]
 
* [[Ter Saami]]
 
* [[Ter Saami]]
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* Spanish [[Sami skolt]]
 
* Spanish [[Sami skolt]]
 
* Norwegian (Nynorsk) [[Skoltesamisk]]
 
* Norwegian (Nynorsk) [[Skoltesamisk]]
 +
  
 
[[Category:En]]
 
[[Category:En]]

Revision as of 11:27, 1 February 2013

Skolt Saami
Autoglottonym: Sääˊmǩiõll, Nuõrttsääˊmǩiõll
Pronunciation: [{{{Pronunciation}}}]
Ethnologue name: Saami, Skolt
OLAC name: {{{OLACname}}}
Location point:
Genealogy
Family: Uralic
Genus: Mainland Eastern Saamic
Speakers
Country: Finland, Norway, Russian Federation
Official in: Finland (Inari)
Speakers: 300
Writing system: {{{WritingSyst}}}
Codes
ISO 639-2: sms
ISO 639-3: {{{ISO3}}}

Skolt Saami is one of the five living Eastern Saamic languages.

Contents

Name

The name skolt, and derived from it Finnish koltta, is likely borrowed from North-Germanic (Norwegian) skalle (cf. Old Norse skoltr, English skull) and means originally 'bald' (skallet in Norwegian).[1]

Location

Skolt Saami is spoken in the borderland area between Russia, Norway and Finland.

Speakers

There are estimated to be about 300 speakers,[2] with the vast majority of whom living in Finland. Only somewhat more than 20 Skolt Saami speakers live in Russia.[3] Although the traditional Skolt Saami dialect of Norway is extinct, the language is again spoken in its original areas there by a few Finnish Skolt Saami domiciled in Norway.[4]

Dialects

Skolt-Saami can be split up into the following dialects:[5].

Northern Skolt Saami

  • Njauddâm
  • Paaččjokk – Peäccam – Mue´tǩǩ

Southern Skolt Saami

  • Suõ´nn’jel
  • Njuõ´ttjäu´rr – Sââ´rvesjäu´rr

The names of the dialects coincide with the names of the original Skolt Saami villages (or rather settlement areas, in Skolt Saami called sijdd), but note that a few of them are merged into two common dialects.

Classification

Uralic
Finno-Ugric
Finno-Permic
Finno-Saamic
Saamic
Eastern Saamic
Mainland Eastern Saamic

Links

Major works on the language

References

  1. Steinar Wikan. 1995. Grensebygda Neiden. Stonglandseidet: Nordkallott-Forlaget ISBN 82-7380-176-4
  2. Ulla-Maija Kulonen. 2005. Skolt Saami language. The Saami. Helsinki: SKS. 396–397 ISBN 951-746-506-8
  3. Elisabeth Scheller. 2011. The Sámi language situation in Russia. Ethnic and linguistic context of identity. Helsinki: SUS. 79–96 ISBN 978-952-5667-28-8
  4. Michael Rießler, own observation
  5. Pekka Sammallahti. 1998. The Saami languages. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji ISBN 82-7374-398-5

See also

Survey articles on Skolt Saami linguistic structures:

Language articles on the other Kola Saami languages

Other Languages