SPOAC model

From Glottopedia
Revision as of 10:32, 6 July 2007 by Ebensgaard (talk | contribs) (new article; please change, repair, expand or improve as you see fit)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The SPOAC model is a pedagogically oriented tree diagram based model of sentence analysis in which each node is marked in terms of both form and function. In addition to sentence components being analyzed in terms of form and function, the sentence itself is marked in terms of its utterance function as well as its structural form.


The model operates with the following form and function labels:

Syntactic functions
S subject
P predicator
O object
Od direct object
Oi Indirect object
A adverbial
C complement
Cs subject complement
Co object complement
CO coordinator
CJT conjoint
DEP/D dependent
H head
Ø zero function
X stacking function
Utterance functions
STA statement
QUE question
COM/DIR command/directive
EXC exclamation
PER performative
OPT optative
CON condition
n noun
v verb
adj adjective
adv adverb
art article
pro pronoun
prep preposition
conj conjunction
infm infinitive marker
num numeral
intj interjection
cl clause
g group
cu/par compound unit/paratagm
ø Zero form
x Stacking form


"SPOAC" is an acronym derived from the five primary sentence functions in the model of analysys - namely, subject, predicator, object, adverbial and complement.


  • Bache, Carl & Niels Davidsen-Nielsen. 1997. Mastering English: an Advanced Grammar for Non-native and Native Speakers. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Bache, Carl, Mike Davenport, John Dienhart & Fritz Larsen. 1999. An Introduction to English Sentence Analysis. 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1991). Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  • VISL: Visual Interactive Syntax Learning Project