Difference between revisions of "North Saami"

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Latest revision as of 16:30, 30 January 2013

North Saami
Autoglottonym: Sámegiella, Davvisámegiella
Pronunciation: [{{{Pronunciation}}}]
Ethnologue name: Saami, North
OLAC name: {{{OLACname}}}
Location point: 24dE 69dN
Genealogy
Family: Uralic
Genus: Saamic
Speakers
Country: Sweden, Norway, Finland
Official in: Sweden, Norway, Finland
Speakers: 15000 (Norway); 25000 (all Countries)
Writing system: {{{WritingSyst}}}
Codes
ISO 639-1: se
ISO 639-2: sme
ISO 639-3: {{{ISO3}}}

Contents

Name

Alternative names:

  • Northern Lapp
  • Norwegian Lapp

Location

Sweden, Norway, Finland.

Standard language 1948, reformed 1973. Recognized minority language in the municipalities of Kautokeino, Karasjok, Kåfjord, Nesseby, Porsanger, Tana (N), Gällivare, Jokkmokk, Kiruna (S), and Enontekiö, Inari, Sodankylä, Utsjoki (SF).

Speakers

15000 in Norway, 4000 in Sweden, and 2000 in Finland according to Ethnologue.

Dialects

North Saami is divided in three main groups: Torne Saami (in the south), Finnmark Saami, and Sea Saami (on the coast).

Torne Saami shares some features with Lule Saami and may therefore be considered transitional to the western group of Central Saami. It is subdivided into four dialects.

Sea Saami shows some remarkable achaisms that agree with Eastern Saamic, especially the retention of geminated nasals. Its western dialect shares some features with western Finnmark Saami, while its central and eastern dialect rather agree with eastern Finnmark Saami, and the eastern dialect shares some features with Inari Saami.

Finnmark Saami (spoken by the majority of North Saami speakers) may be divided into western and eastern dialects. In the east stressed long vowels and diphthongs show front-back umlaut variation, stressed short vowels might be lengthened depending on the quantity of the following consonants, and single short intervocalic b, g are fricativized. In the west, "preaspirated" clusters hp, ht, hk are simplified to h (if following an unstressed vowel), and after a short stressed vowel, geminate consonants or unstressed a may be lengthened.

Classification

Uralic
Finnic-Ugric
Saamic
Central Saamic

References

  • Aikio, Ante (1986): Some issues in the study of language shift in the Northern Calotte. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 7:5, 361-378.
  • Bartens, Hans-Hermann (1989): Lehrbuch der saamischen (lappischen) Sprache. Hamburg: Buske.
  • Bergsland, Knut (1976) Lappische Grammatik mit Lesestücken. Aus dem Norwegischen übersetzt von Werner Dontenwill. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz
  • Collinder, Bjørn (1949): The Lappish dialect of Jukkasjärvi. Uppsala: Kungliga Humanistiska Vetenskaps-Samfundet i Uppsala.
  • Frette, Thor (1975): Norsk-saamisk ordbok / Dárugie-sámigiel sádigir’ji. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Gaski, Harald (1991): Våja våja nana nana: saamiske tekster. Oslo : LNU.
  • Huss, Leena (1999): Reversing language shift in the Far North: linguistic revitalization in Northern Scandinavia and Finland. [Studia Uralica et Altaica Upsaliensia 31]. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
  • Korhonen, Mikko (1988a): The Lapp Language. In: Sinor, Denis (ed., 1988): The Uralic Languages. Description, History, and Foreign Influences. Leiden: Brill, 41-57.
  • Korhonen, Mikko (1988b): The History of the Lapp Language. In: Sinor, Denis (ed., 1988): The Uralic Languages. Description, History, and Foreign Influences. Leiden: Brill, 264-287.
  • Lagercrantz, Eliel (1929): Sprachlehre des Nordlappischen nach den seelappischen Mundarten. Oslo: Oslo Etnografiske Museum.
  • Kusmenko, Jurij (2008): Der saamische Einfluss auf die skandinavischen Sprachen. Ein Beitrag zur skandinavischen Sprachgeschichte. [Berliner Beiträge zur Skandinavistik, 10]. Berlin: Nordeuropa-Institut der Humboldt-Universität.
  • Nielsen, Konrad & Nesheim, Asbjørn (1962): Lappisk ordbok, grunnet på dialektene i Polmak, Karasjok og Kautokeino. 5 Bde. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
  • Saami Linguistics Bibliography. Compiled by Anita Szakay, Michael Rießler, Ida Toivonen, Diane Nelson, Zita McRobbie-Utasi & Nina Widjaja. In: Toivonen, Ida & Nelson, Diane (2007), Saami linguistics. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 259-304
  • Sammallahti, Pekka (1989): Saami-suoma satnegirji : Saamelais-suomalainen sanakirja. Ohcejohka: Jorgaleaddji.
  • Sammallahti, Pekka (1998a): The Saami Languages: An introduction. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji.
  • Sammallahti, Pekka (1998b): Saamic. In: Abondolo, Daniel (ed., 1998): The Uralic l

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