Multicultural London English

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Multicultural London English (abbreviated MLE) is a multiethnolect that emerged in the late 20th century in inner city London. Being the result of group second language acquisition of British English, it incorporates features of Patois, West African and Indian.


  • Hinglish, Jafaican

Further Reading

  • Cheshire, Jenny, Paul Kerswill, Sue Fox & Eivind Torgersen. 2008. Ethnicity, Friendship Network and Social Practices as the Motor of Dialect Change: Linguistic Innovation in London. Sociolinguistica, 22: 1–23.
  • Cheshire, Jenny and Sue Fox. 2009. Was/Were Variation: a Perspective from London. Language Variation and Change, 21: 1–23.
  • Cheshire, Jenny, Paul Kerswill, Sue Fox & Eivind Torgersen. 2011. Contact, the Feature Pool and the Speech Community: The Emergence of Multicultural London English. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 15/2: 151–196.
  • Kerswill, Paul and Eivind Torgersen and Sue Fox. 2008. Reversing “Drift” : Innovation and Diffusion in the London Diphthong System. Language Variation and Change, 20/3: 451-491.