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== Juden-Portugiesisch ==
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<p style="margin: 0.5em 0 0 0; text-align: center; font-size: 125%; line-height: 1.3">
Juden-Portugiesisch ist eine [[judenromanische Sprache]] und gilt als eine Varietät des [[Portugiesischen]], die von den Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts aus Portugal vertriebenen Juden gesprochen wurde.
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'''Welcome to [[Glottopedia:About Glottopedia|Glottopedia]], the free encyclopedia of linguistics.'''
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'''Temporary downtime for maintenance: 9th October 2021 to 11th October 2021'''
  
# Allgemeines
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'''Glottopedia has been updated.'''
# Das Juden-Portugiesische von Livorno
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;Update information (17th September 2020)
# Sprachliche Merkmale
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# Quellen
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=== Allgemeines ===
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;Update information (2nd November 2020)
Die Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts aus Portugal vertriebenen Juden ließen sich in verschiedenen Städten Hollands, Italiens, Frankreichs und Deutschlands nieder. Zu erwähnen sind vor allem die Städte Hamburg, Amsterdam und Livorno, in denen das Juden-Portugiesische, das heutzutage ausgestorben ist, am längsten erhalten blieb. Ein Manuskript aus dem 18. Jahrhundert belegt, dass alle Juden, die in Amsterdam und Livorno lebten, Portugiesisch sprachen. Heute lassen sich noch Spuren des Judenportugiesischen in Familiennamen und in einigen umgangssprachlichen Wörtern der Sprache der Nachfahren der portugiesischen Juden finden.  
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<p style="margin:0.1em 0 0.1em;text-align:center;font-size:95%">[[Glottopedia:About Glottopedia|Introduction]]&nbsp;&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Glottopedia:Frequently asked questions|Frequently asked questions]]&nbsp;&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Glottopedia:Contact|Contact]]&nbsp;&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Special:Allpages|All articles A&ndash;Z]]&nbsp;&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;Number of articles: [[Special:Statistics|{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}]]&nbsp;&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Glottopedia:Hauptseite|Glottopedia in German]]
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</p>
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<p style="text-align: center; margin:0 0 0.5em 0; line-height: 1.6;" class="plainlinks">
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[[Portal:Semantics|Semantics]] | [[Portal:Phonetics and phonology|Phonetics and phonology]] | [[Portal:Morphology|Morphology]] | [[Portal:Syntax|Syntax]] | [[Portal:Psycholinguistics|Psycholinguistics]] | [[Portal:List of portals|Other thematic areas]] | [[Portal:Biography|Biography]] | [[Portal:Linguistic research|Linguistic research]] | [[Portal:Linguists|Linguists]] 
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</p>
  
=== Das Juden-Portugiesische von Livorno ===
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{|
Juden-Portugiesisch gilt als eine Varietät des Portugiesischen mit archaischen Besonderheiten und ist eine wenig erforschte Sprache. Die kompletteste Studie über eine Varietät des Juden-Portugiesischen ist die von Tavani (1959), die sich auf sieben Texte aus Livorno aus dem 18. Jahrhundert stützt. Das Juden-Portugiesische von Livorno wird auch Juden-Livornesisch genannt. Der Grund dafür, dass in Livorno verstärkt Juden-Portugiesisch gesprochen wurde, sind die ''Leggi Livornine'', die um 1600 erlassen wurden und Händlern verschiedenster Herkunft die freie Ausübung ihrer Religion gewährten. Dadurch ließen sich verschiedene Bevölkerungsgruppen in Livorno nieder, unter anderem die aus Spanien und Portugal stammenden sephardischen Juden.
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In Livorno wurde sowohl Juden-Portugiesisch als auch [[Juden-Spanisch]] gesprochen, wobei der Gebrauch dieser beiden Sprachen aufgeteilt war. Juden-Portugiesisch galt aufgrund der überlegenen Sprecherzahl als Sprache der Behörden und der Gesetzgebung, während Juden-Spanisch als Literatursprache galt. Juden-Spanisch lebt somit länger als Juden-Portugiesisch und ist immer noch auf Grabinschriften zu finden. Die Verwendung dieser beiden Sprachen wirkt reziprok und hat, auch auf Grund des italienischen Einflusses, Mischformen zur Folge.
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=== Sprachliche Merkmale ===
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[[Glottopedia:About Glottopedia|Glottopedia]] is a freely editable encyclopedia for linguists by linguists that is currently being built up. It will contain [[Glottopedia:Dictionary articles|dictionary articles]] on all technical terms of linguistics and is [[Glottopedia:Multilingual|multilingual]]. In addition, there are [[Glottopedia:Survey articles|survey articles]], [[Glottopedia:Biographical articles|biographical articles]] and [[Glottopedia:Language articles|language articles]], potentially on all linguists and all languages.
Die sprachlichen Einflüsse des Italienischen und Spanischen auf das Juden-Portugiesische sind vor allem in der Morphologie zu beobachten.  
 
Im Juden-Portugiesischen gibt es viele spanische oder italienische Verben, Präpositionen und Konjunktionen, die an das portugiesische System angepasst wurden.
 
Häufig finden sich Änderungen im Genus. Beispielsweise sind die im Portugiesischen femininen Wörter ''ordem'' und ''margem'' im Juden-Portugiesischen maskulin: juden-port. ''o ordem'' (mask.) wegen ital. ''l’ordine'' (mask.) oder juden-port. ''o margem'' (mask.) wegen ital. ''il margine''.
 
Auf spanischen Einfluss geht die Konstruktion des Passivs mit ''ficar'' zurück, die aufgrund der spanischen Passivkonstruktion mit ''quedar'' entstanden ist.
 
Das Juden-Portugiesische weißt zahlreiche archaische Formen und Strukturen auf. ''Haver'' bleibt das einzige Hilfsverb für die zusammengesetzten Zeiten im Aktiv (''ha mostrado'', ''averão recolhido'') und ''ter'' wird fast ausschließlich im Sinne von ‚haben’ gebraucht. Außerdem steht das Relativpronomen ''cujo'' für ‚das’ oder ‚welcher’ (''de cuja filha seigia''). Des Weiteren stehen die Possessivpronomina ohne Artikel: ''a as entradas de nossa Esnoga''.
 
In der Phonetik des Juden-Portugiesischen geht die Neutralisierung der Opposition /b/-/v/ auf spanischen Einfluss und die Reduktion /įa/>/a/ der Endung ''-ancia/-encia'' auf italienischen Einfluss zurück.
 
  
=== Quellen ===
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Glottopedia articles also exist in [[Glottopedia:Über Glottopedia|German]], [[Glottopedia:Bienvenidos|Spanish]], [[Glottopedia:Benvenuto|Italian]], [[Glottopedia:Accueil des nouveaux arrivants|French]], [[Glottopedia:про Глоттопедию|Russian]], [[Glottopedia:Velkommen|Danish]], Swedish, [[Glottopedia:欢迎,新来者|Chinese]], Japanese, [[Glottopedia:Velkomen|Norwegian (Nynorsk)]], and in the future hopefully also in many other languages.
Sala, Marius: Die romanischen Judensprachen / Les langues judéo-romanes (Art. 476). In: Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL) Bd. 7, hrsg. von Günter Holtus.
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http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Livorno.html, zuletzt aufgerufen am 04.04.10.
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'''Glottopedia needs your [[Glottopedia:How to contribute|contribution]]'''!
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=Glottopedia Team=
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===Editors===
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''Editors-in-Chief'': [[User:NaumSven|Dr. Sven Naumann]], [[User:Wohlgemuth|Dr. Jan Wohlgemuth]]
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''Technical Editor'': [[User:Rostin|Tim Rostin]]
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===Scientific Advisory Council===
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[[Gabriel Altmann]], [[Pier Marco Bertinetto]], [[Greville G. Corbett]], [[Östen Dahl]], [[Martin Haase]], [[Martin Haspelmath]], [[Reinhard Köhler]], [[John McWhorter]], [[Eva Schoenke]], [[Jürgen Wedekind]]
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=Sample dictionary articles=
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===Syntax===
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(see also [[Portal:Syntax]])
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[[adjective]], [[alliterative agreement]], [[applicative]], [[apposition]], [[argument structure]], [[attribute]], [[case]], [[complement]], [[contact clause]], [[coordinand]], [[core argument]], [[c-structure]], [[dative transformation]], [[dependency grammar]], [[ellipsis]], [[ergativity]], [[free state]], [[full verb]], [[gapping]], [[infinitive]], [[internal argument]], [[lexical category]], [[negative concord]], [[nonconfigurationality]],  [[noun]], [[part of speech]], [[phrase structure grammar]], [[pied piping]], [[prepositional phrase]], [[pro]], [[PRO]], [[promotion]], [[rich agreement]], [[semantic macrorole]], [[subject]], [[subordinator]], [[subcomparative construction]], [[syntactic function]],  [[X-bar theory]], [[Θ-role]]
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===Morphology===
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(see also [[Portal:Morphology]])
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[[accusative case]], [[adfix]], [[affix]], [[allocutive]], [[base]], [[category-system]], [[deadjectival]], [[derivation]], [[dimension]], [[Distributed Morphology]], [[expletive infixation]], [[fission]], [[flag]], [[impoverishment]], [[infinitive]], [[inflection]], [[lexeme]], [[macroparadigm]], [[morpheme]], [[morphophonemics]], [[morphosyntactic category]], [[oblique case]], [[plurale tantum]], [[prefix]], [[reduplicant]], [[simplex]], [[supine]], [[suspended affixation]], [[syncretism]]
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===Phonetics and Phonology===
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(see also [[Portal:Phonetics and phonology]])
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[[affricate]], [[apocope]], [[apicodental]], [[appendix (in syllable structure)]], [[approximant]], [[breathy voice]], [[coda]], [[compensatory lengthening]], [[Contrastive Specification Theory]], [[dactyl]], [[declarative phonology]], [[degenerate foot]], [[dependency phonology]], [[extrametricality]], [[fricative]], [[labiodental]], [[laryngeal]], [[lateral]], [[liquid]], [[manner of articulation]], [[Maximal Onset Principle]], [[metrical phonology]], [[minimal word constraint]], [[nasal]], [[natural class]], [[pitch accent (lexical)]],  [[prependix]], [[stop]], [[stress]], [[stress-timed and syllable-timed]], [[uvular]], [[velar]], [[velarization]], [[vowel]]
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===Semantics===
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(see also [[Portal:Semantics]])
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[[agent]], [[ambiguity]], [[antonym]], [[aspect]], [[commissive]], [[collective noun]], [[connotation]], [[de dicto and de re]], [[denotation]],  [[directive]], [[echo question]],  [[face]], [[hedge]], [[holonym]], [[hyperonym]], [[hyponym]], [[idiom]], [[illocution]], [[implicature]], [[indirect speech act]], [[internally caused situation]], [[meaning]], [[modality]], [[Natural Semantic Metalanguage]], [[performative verb]], [[perlocutionary act]],  [[proposition]], [[protasis]], [[semantic marker]], [[semantic role]], [[sense]], [[specificity]], [[speech act]], [[thetic vs. categorical]], [[vagueness]]
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===Diachrony===
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(see also [[Portal:Diachrony]])
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[[antigrammaticalization]], [[borrowing]], [[genus]], [[haplology]], [[hyperanalysis]], [[innovation]], [[language family]], [[loanword]], [[normal transmission]], [[propagation]], [[push chain]], [[reanalysis]], [[sound law]], [[syntacticization]], [[xenism]]
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===Computational Linguistics===
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(see also [[Portal:Computational Linguistics]])
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[[Brill-Tagger]], [[feature logic]], [[finite-state automata]], [[Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar|GPSG]], [[HPSG]], [[Lexical-Functional Grammar|LFG]], [[ID/LP rules]], [[KWIC concordance]], [[parser]], [[shallow parsing]], [[subsumption]], [[tagger]],  [[Two-level morphology]], [[unification]],  [[unification-based grammars]], [[machine translation]], [[chunking]]
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===Quantitative Linguistics===
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(see also [[Portal:Quantitative Linguistics]])
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[[aims and methods of quantitative linguistics]], [[history of quantitative linguistics ]],
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[[property]], [[unit]], [[entropy]], [[frequency]], [[function]], [[law]], [[graph theory]], [[hypothesis]],
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[[index]], [[information]], [[information theory]], [[numeric classification]], [[length]], [[measure]],
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[[metrics]], [[model (building)]], [[economy]], [[process]], [[scale]], [[language law]], [[statistics]],
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[[structure]], [[synergetic linguistics]], [[system]], [[system requirement]], [[text]], [[text statistics]],
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[[theory]], [[distribution]], [[repetition]], [[properties of the word]], [[interrelation]], [[polysemy]], [[polytextuality]], [[neighbours]], [[Ngram frequency]]
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=Sample biographical articles=
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(see also: [[Portal:Biography]])
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[[Karl Ferdinand Becker]], [[Johannes Benzing]], [[Simon C. Dik]], [[Dionysius Thrax]], [[Stefan Elders]], [[H. Allan Gleason Jr.]], [[Einar Haugen]], [[Marco Haverkort]], [[Karl Erich Heidolph]], [[Boris Isaakovič Jarcho]], [[Georg Friedrich Meier]], [[Harry L. Shorto]],· [[John Sinclair]], [[Sergej A. Starostin]], [[Jost Winteler]]
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[[Category:En]]
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[[Category:Glottopedia]]
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=Other Languages=
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* Chinese [[Glottopedia:欢迎,新来者|欢迎,新来者]]
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* Danish [[Glottopedia:Velkommen|Velkommen]]
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* German [[Glottopedia:Hauptseite|Hauptseite]]
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* Norwegian (Nynorsk) [[Glottopedia:Velkomen|Velkomen]]
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* Spanish [[Glottopedia:Bienvenidos|Bienvenidos]]

Latest revision as of 14:53, 8 September 2021

Welcome to Glottopedia, the free encyclopedia of linguistics.

Temporary downtime for maintenance: 9th October 2021 to 11th October 2021

Glottopedia has been updated.

Update information (17th September 2020)
The update to the newest version of Mediawiki has been completed.
During the process 168 users without an ID in the database have been deleted, this should not cause any problems since users without IDs are not activated accounts and as such can not edit the wiki. If you experience problems with your user account please contact glottopedia[at]uni-trier.de.
It appears that no data was lost during transfer, except for one page that has been recovered. The old version of Glottopedia will still be available for an indeterminate amount of time, but it will not be editable any longer. If you find any pages that are missing in this updated version please contact glottopedia[at]uni-trier.de.
Some minor tweaks are still necessary and will be completed shortly.
We ask you to keep a copy of your edits/created pages until we are sure this new version of Mediawiki runs smoothly.
Update information (2nd November 2020)
The website for the old version of Glottopedia is not available anymore.

Introduction  -  Frequently asked questions  -  Contact  -  All articles A–Z  -  Number of articles: 3,225  -  Glottopedia in German

Glottopedia is a freely editable encyclopedia for linguists by linguists that is currently being built up. It will contain dictionary articles on all technical terms of linguistics and is multilingual. In addition, there are survey articles, biographical articles and language articles, potentially on all linguists and all languages.

Glottopedia articles also exist in German, Spanish, Italian, French, Russian, Danish, Swedish, Chinese, Japanese, Norwegian (Nynorsk), and in the future hopefully also in many other languages.


Glottopedia needs your contribution!


Glottopedia Team

Editors

Editors-in-Chief: Dr. Sven Naumann, Dr. Jan Wohlgemuth

Technical Editor: Tim Rostin

Scientific Advisory Council

Gabriel Altmann, Pier Marco Bertinetto, Greville G. Corbett, Östen Dahl, Martin Haase, Martin Haspelmath, Reinhard Köhler, John McWhorter, Eva Schoenke, Jürgen Wedekind

Sample dictionary articles

Syntax

(see also Portal:Syntax)

adjective, alliterative agreement, applicative, apposition, argument structure, attribute, case, complement, contact clause, coordinand, core argument, c-structure, dative transformation, dependency grammar, ellipsis, ergativity, free state, full verb, gapping, infinitive, internal argument, lexical category, negative concord, nonconfigurationality, noun, part of speech, phrase structure grammar, pied piping, prepositional phrase, pro, PRO, promotion, rich agreement, semantic macrorole, subject, subordinator, subcomparative construction, syntactic function, X-bar theory, Θ-role

Morphology

(see also Portal:Morphology)

accusative case, adfix, affix, allocutive, base, category-system, deadjectival, derivation, dimension, Distributed Morphology, expletive infixation, fission, flag, impoverishment, infinitive, inflection, lexeme, macroparadigm, morpheme, morphophonemics, morphosyntactic category, oblique case, plurale tantum, prefix, reduplicant, simplex, supine, suspended affixation, syncretism

Phonetics and Phonology

(see also Portal:Phonetics and phonology)

affricate, apocope, apicodental, appendix (in syllable structure), approximant, breathy voice, coda, compensatory lengthening, Contrastive Specification Theory, dactyl, declarative phonology, degenerate foot, dependency phonology, extrametricality, fricative, labiodental, laryngeal, lateral, liquid, manner of articulation, Maximal Onset Principle, metrical phonology, minimal word constraint, nasal, natural class, pitch accent (lexical), prependix, stop, stress, stress-timed and syllable-timed, uvular, velar, velarization, vowel

Semantics

(see also Portal:Semantics)

agent, ambiguity, antonym, aspect, commissive, collective noun, connotation, de dicto and de re, denotation, directive, echo question, face, hedge, holonym, hyperonym, hyponym, idiom, illocution, implicature, indirect speech act, internally caused situation, meaning, modality, Natural Semantic Metalanguage, performative verb, perlocutionary act, proposition, protasis, semantic marker, semantic role, sense, specificity, speech act, thetic vs. categorical, vagueness

Diachrony

(see also Portal:Diachrony)

antigrammaticalization, borrowing, genus, haplology, hyperanalysis, innovation, language family, loanword, normal transmission, propagation, push chain, reanalysis, sound law, syntacticization, xenism

Computational Linguistics

(see also Portal:Computational Linguistics)

Brill-Tagger, feature logic, finite-state automata, GPSG, HPSG, LFG, ID/LP rules, KWIC concordance, parser, shallow parsing, subsumption, tagger, Two-level morphology, unification, unification-based grammars, machine translation, chunking

Quantitative Linguistics

(see also Portal:Quantitative Linguistics)

aims and methods of quantitative linguistics, history of quantitative linguistics , property, unit, entropy, frequency, function, law, graph theory, hypothesis, index, information, information theory, numeric classification, length, measure, metrics, model (building), economy, process, scale, language law, statistics, structure, synergetic linguistics, system, system requirement, text, text statistics, theory, distribution, repetition, properties of the word, interrelation, polysemy, polytextuality, neighbours, Ngram frequency

Sample biographical articles

(see also: Portal:Biography)

Karl Ferdinand Becker, Johannes Benzing, Simon C. Dik, Dionysius Thrax, Stefan Elders, H. Allan Gleason Jr., Einar Haugen, Marco Haverkort, Karl Erich Heidolph, Boris Isaakovič Jarcho, Georg Friedrich Meier, Harry L. ShortoJohn Sinclair, Sergej A. Starostin, Jost Winteler

Other Languages