Language planning refers to deliberate efforts on the part of governments, educators or intellectuals to modify the structure or social role of a language.
Since Kloss (1969), two subtypes are often distinguished:
The term has been around since the 1960s. It seems that it arose in connection with policy decisions in newly independent Asian and African countries.
- Cobarrubias, Juan & Fishman, Joshua A. (eds.) 1983. Progress in language planning: International perspectives. Berlin: Mouton.
- Cooper, R. L. 1989. Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Haugen, Einar. 1966. "Linguistics and language planning." In: Bright, William (ed.) Sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 50-71.
- Kloss, Heinz. 1969. Research possibilities on group bilingualism: a report. Quebec: International Center for research on Bilingualism.
- Tauli, V. 1968. Introduction to a theory of language planning. Uppsala.