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The term gram is sometimes used as a short form of grammatical morpheme, following Bybee et al. 1994.


According to Bybee et al. (1994:2), "the term "gram" was coined by Bill Pagliuca and first used in Bybee (1986)".


  • Bybee, Joan L. 1986. On the nature of grammatical categories: a diachronic perspective. Eastern States Conference on Linguistics 2: 17-34.
  • Bybee, Joan L. & Perkins, Revere & Pagliuca, William. 1994. The evolution of grammar: Tense, aspect and modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Other languages

German Gramma